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citizen kane screenplay analysis

[k][9]:203–204, "The major focus of Kael's essay is its defense and celebration of screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz as the principal, neglected creative force behind Kane," wrote film critic Jonathan Rosenbaum. [6]:212, Described by biographer Simon Callow as "a keen student of power and its abuses",[10]:484 Mankiewicz was fascinated by Hearst,[6]:212 and Hearst in turn was interested in the former journalist with so much political knowledge. This academic paper is composed by Samuel. [5]:236–237 Welles hesitated to officially agree to give Mankiewicz credit. [5]:235 Welles later said the germinal idea was to create a posthumous portrait of a man through many points of view, in the recollections of those who knew him. MAJOR CREDITS FOR CITIZEN KANE Citizen Kane 1941 (RKO/Mercury) Producer: Orson Welles Director: Orson Welles Screenplay: Herman J. Mankiewicz, Orson Welles [Joseph Cotten, John Housemani Director of’ Photography: Gregg Toland Editor: Robert Wise, [Mark Robson] Music: Bernard Herrmann These shows Welles making major changes to the Citizen Kane script up to and including new scenes and some of the movie's best lines. [a][7]:98 Houseman and Welles were partners in the Mercury Theatre,[4]:55 but when Mercury productions moved from New York to California the partnership ended and Houseman became an employee, working primarily as supervising editor on the radio shows. This included threatening to post full-page ads in trade papers and getting his friend Ben Hecht to write an exposé about their collaboration in the Saturday Evening Post. Get Essay About the author. [6]:237 Mankiewicz was enraged when an August 1940 column by Louella Parsons quoted Welles as saying, " … and so I wrote Citizen Kane. Orson Welles ' 1941 film Citizen Kane, which Welles directed, produced, and co-wrote with Herman J. Mankiewicz, premiered at the RKO Palace Theatre in New York on May 1, 1941. The classic masterpiece, Citizen Kane (1941), is probably the world's most famous and highly rated film, with its many remarkable scenes, cinematic and narrative techniques and innovations. Welles said, "Mr. Hearst was quite a bit like Kane, although Kane isn't really founded on Hearst in particular. The opening shots show Xanadu, Kane's vast, elaborate, and now unkempt estate in Florida. That was his role, and he played it to the hilt. [10]:484 By late January their disagreements over plot details were more frequent and their collaboration less creative. "[4]:53, Welles and Mankiewicz soon settled on the idea of using newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst as their central character. Mankiewicz would have agreed with Kael. "[4]:52–53, Welles admired Mankiewicz, and had met him in New York in 1938[5]:234 at the time of the Mercury Theatre's Broadway successes. There was continual communication with Welles,[15]:81 and Houseman often travelled to Los Angeles to confer with him. Citizen Kane Summary. Like that of Citizen Kane, the play’s plot is structured around a journalist attempting to understand Brown by interviewing people who knew him and have different perspectives on him. He told Welles that there were "not enough standard movie conventions being observed" and that he disliked the theatricality and lack of close-ups in the film. Citizen Kane (Analysis) Citizen Kane : Analysis on Happiness and Money If Charles Foster Kane is in itself an impressive well of treasures, the film that depicts him has a very valuable intelligence and talents. [5]:235 Over the next five weeks Welles spent many long evenings brainstorming plot ideas in the bedroom of the small rented house where Mankiewicz was in traction with his shattered leg. A rich incorporation of the experiences and knowledge of its authors, the film earned an Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay) for Herman J. Mankiewicz and Welles. Welles (Tom Burke) appears in the film, but it’s mostly about Mank. "[15]:80, Carringer found that the issues raised by Kael rested on the evidence of an early draft of the screenplay, primarily written by Mankiewicz,[15]:80 which "elaborated the plot logic and laid down the overall story contours, established the main characters, and provided numerous scenes and lines that would eventually appear in one form or another in the film. "[16]:6, But at the same time, Houseman was stirring controversy, lunching with film critic Pauline Kael and giving Mankiewicz total credit for the creation of the script for Citizen Kane. Much evidence suggests that the original idea for Citizen Kane came from Herman Mankiewicz, a battle-hardened Hollywood scriptwriter. [29]:30, Other rebuttals included articles by Sarris,[30] Joseph McBride[31] and Rosenbaum,[32] interviews with George Coulouris and Bernard Herrmann that appeared in Sight & Sound,[33] a definitive study of the scripts by Carringer[15] and remarks in Welles biographies by Leaming[9]:203–204 and Brady. [7]:132 "It was something [Mankiewicz] had been thinking about for years," Houseman wrote, “the idea of telling a man’s private life (preferably one that suggested a recognizable American figure), immediately following his death, through the intimate and often incompatible testimony of those who had known him at different times and in different circumstances.”[3]:448–449, Welles himself had worked with the concept. "[6]:168, Welles further said this to Mankiewicz's biographer: "I have only one real enemy in my life that I know about, and that is John Houseman. [7]:504–505[9]:235–236, In late December, the executive board of RKO Pictures all but ordered studio chief George Schaefer to stop paying salaries to the Mercury Productions staff until Welles submitted an acceptable script and set a start date for filming. [2]:32[13]:221 Welles wanted the work done as inconspicuously as possible,[11]:17 and the ranch offered the additional advantage of prohibiting alcohol. [15]:109–110 "That the subsequent installments are also attributable chiefly to Welles is indicated both by the circumstances and by the nature of the revisions," Carringer wrote. Citizen Kane Movie Analysis 1156 Words | 5 Pages. Mank saw him simply as an egomaniac monster with all these people around him. The plot device of the unseen journalist Thompson in Citizen Kane is also reminiscent of the unseen Marlow in Welles's proposed film Heart of Darkness, in which the narrator and audience share the point of view. So it was his vulnerability that brought the warmth out from the friends. "[15]:117, The screenplay for Citizen Kane received the Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay), shared by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Orson Welles.[37]. These faults eventually cause Kane to lose his paper, fortune, friends, and beloved second wife, Susan. Tons of work goes into the planning, he argued, but much of a film’s vision comes down to the on-set execution. Mankiewicz made the difference. [4]:359[11]:17–18 Welles re-wrote and revised an incomplete first draft given to him, dated April 16, and sent it back to Victorville. [8]:88 In December 1939, after a violent quarrel with Welles over finances, Houseman resigned and returned to New York. [6]:212–213 By 1936, however, Mankiewicz was no longer welcome in Hearst's circle due to his drinking and political arguments. ", "The by-line carried only my name," Bogdanovich later wrote, "but Orson had taken a strong hand in revising and rewriting. Welles then "adapted it with the same freedom and disregard for authority with which he adapt[ed] a Shakespeare play or a thriller by Nicholas Blake. Developing specific editing techniques, Orson Welles constructed the plot from separate fragments and several voices, affecting the spectators’ perception of the plot and emphasizing the impossibility of portraying another personality. [15]:119 Welles came to suspect that Houseman had turned Mankiewicz against him. Welles's assistant Richard Wilson said that the person who circled Mankiewicz's name in pencil, then drew an arrow that put it in first place, was Welles. The contract with Mankiewicz left the matter of his receiving credit open; Welles's correspondence with his lawyer indicated that he did not wish to deny credit to Mankiewicz. Welles was 24 when he co-wrote Citizen Kane. These pages were given to RKO script supervisor Amalia Kent, who broke the material down in continuity form for the production units. He implies that American, with only the conventional amount of polishing, was what was filmed. Get Your Custom Essay on Citizen Kane Analysis Just from $13,9/Page. In response to a question asking him about his response to a line from “Raising Kane” — specifically that “the director should be in control, not because he’s the sole creative intelligence, but because only if he is in control can he liberate and utilize the talents of his coworkers” — he said Kael knew loads more about watching movies than making them. [9]:185 Forty-four revision pages dated April 28 were given to Welles. "[6]:270[24] Mankiewicz wrote his father, "I'm particularly furious at the incredibly insolent description of how Orson wrote his masterpiece. Updated February 17, 2020. [10]:487 Mankiewicz was advised by his agents, Columbia Management of California, and before he signed the contract it was again made clear that all credit for his work belonged to Welles and the Mercury Theatre, the "author and creator". The origins of “Citizen Kane” are well known. The official credit reads, "Screenplay by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Orson Welles". [15]:21 The RKO legal department warned Welles that it was too close a portrait of Hearst and that if the script was not changed a suit for libel or invasion of privacy was almost certain. "[6]:257[g] Welles had been editing and rewriting the script pages in Beverly Hills. [6]:245–246 Mankiewicz testified in a court proceeding a few years later[specify] that the idea for the film began with a March of Time-style sequence that set out the life of a particular character whose life would then be the subject of the film. [b][5]:246 "I'd been nursing an old notion," Welles told Bogdanovich, "the idea of telling the same thing several times—and showing exactly the same thing from wholly different points of view. [4]:356 To Welles, his departure was a relief. Welles was invited to celebrate Huxley's birthday at a party where the consensus was that the book could never be made into a film due to Hearst's influence. "It was a kind of controlled, cheerful virulence … I personally liked Kane, but I went with that. The screenplay is credited to Fincher’s father, Jack, and favors Kael’s telling of events. You are stitching those garments onto bodies up to the last 45 seconds before that person walks that runway.”. "A neurotic drinker and a compulsive gambler, he was also one of the most intelligent, informed, witty, humane and charming men I have ever known. But we got pretty quickly to the press lords. Welles never confirmed a principal source for the character of Charles Foster Kane. By signing up you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy, Interpretation of the news based on evidence, including data, as well as anticipating how events might unfold based on past events. Now it’s obsolete. “Raising Kane” is a phenomenal work of criticism: Kael does a remarkable job reclaiming those 1930s pictures and their writers, and her analysis of Kane … Citizen Kane Summary. Before coming to Hollywood … The ‘difficult genius’ trope was always problematic. All reveal in some way that Kane is arrogant, thoughtless, morally bankrupt, desperate for attention, and incapable of giving love. [6]:215 They were always given the same apartment in La Casa del Monte guest cottage[6]:214—"like a little castle of our own," said Sara Mankiewicz. Ma… When he came back, we were enemies," Welles told biographer Richard Meryman. [9]:55, 184–185 "Orson was from Chicago," said the Mercury Theatre's Richard Wilson, "and I believe he was as much influenced by Samuel Insull and Colonel Robert McCormick as he was by the figure of Hearst. "[10]:484, During March, April and early May 1940, Mankiewicz dictated the screenplay, titled American. Kael interviewed both Houseman and Alexander, who took dictation from Mankiewicz and told the critic “that Welles didn’t write (or dictate) one line of the shooting script of ‘Citizen Kane.’ ” Welles might have made suggestions early on and pointed out potential cuts, Kael stated, but Alexander held that she never even met him until after Mankiewicz had finished his first draft. In September 1939[6]:244 Welles visited Mankiewicz while he was hospitalized in Los Angeles after a car accident, and offered him a job writing scripts for the Mercury Theatre's show on CBS radio, The Campbell Playhouse. Review: ‘Mank’ is a movie made to delight critics and cinephiles. ", Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay), "Joseph Campbell and Jean De Blasis Interview", "Citizen Kane Remembered [May–June 1969]". [11]:26–27 "By far the most serious dramatic problem in American is its treatment of Kane," wrote Carringer. [5]:236 Welles's attorney, Arnold Weissberger, did not want to give RKO any cause to break Welles's contract should they wish to promote the film as solely his work. [7]:102 The title was contributed by RKO studio chief George Schaefer,[4]:82 who was concerned that calling the film American would seem cynical and identify too closely with Hearst, whose newspapers included the American Weekly and the New York Journal-American. The guild credit form listed Welles first, Mankiewicz second. Discuss to what extent citizen Kane changed film and the golden era of cinema The film was made in 1941 and won best screenplay at the Oscars and was also nominated for best picture, best director, best actor and best cinematography. Screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz was a notorious personality in Hollywood. He was a performer, as I think all very successful personalities are. "[4]:500[21], In 1969, when he was interviewed for the official magazine of the Directors Guild of America, Houseman concurred with Welles's description of the scripting process: "He [Welles] added a great deal of material himself, and later he and Herman had a dreadful row over the screen credit. More works of conjecture … have been written on the creation of the screenplay for Citizen Kane than Orson and Herman were ever able to cram between those blue covers. 4 min read. In the very beginning, Welles’ uses the element of deep space to portray the level of power of each character in the scene. That terrible vulnerability. [h][11]:21, 23. "[3]:447 Orson Welles told Peter Bogdanovich that "Nobody was more miserable, more bitter, and funnier than Mank ... a perfect monument of self-destruction. Analysis Of Citizen Kane Essay 1166 Words | 5 Pages. Mankiewicz immediately went to work on another project for MGM,[f][11]:24 and Houseman left for New York four days later. Orson Welles’ 1941 drama Citizen Kane is now widely considered to be the single greatest film ever made.This is largely due to the vital precedent it set for contemporary cinema; it was lauded as a technical and narrative innovation in its time, and the notional seeds it sowed into the cultural public consciousness have had, and continue to have, an immense impact on art. "[4]:54 In February 1940,[3]:444, 448 Welles arranged a lunch at New York's 21 Club and persuaded Houseman to return to California. I can tell you positively he didn't." The film was distributed by RKO Radio Pictures. “Mank” also includes his decision to sign a contract giving up any writing credit on the “Citizen Kane” script, an agreement he later went back on by filing a complaint with the Writers Guild. Although he played a key role in writing Citizen Kane, Welles did not create the script single-handedly. "I felt it would be useless," Welles said later, "because of Mank's general uselessness many times in the studios. In Orson Welles’ film Citizen Kane, he uses cinematographic elements to help to develop the growth of power of Charles Foster Kane throughout his life. He holds a small snow-globe, depicting an idyllic snow-covered cabin, as he utters his final word: "Rosebud". Chief amongst Kael’s claims was that Mankiewicz was the principal writer of “Citizen Kane,” an argument countering the auteurist stance that Welles — Welles and Lederer later became great friends. "[16]:6 Roger Hill, head of the Todd Seminary for Boys and Welles's mentor and lifelong friend, wrote that Welles once told him about a project he was considering: "He had outlined to me, years earlier, a plan for a stage play based on the life of an American tycoon who would be a composite of Insull, McCormick and Hearst. [9]:204, After lodging a protest with the Screen Writers Guild, Mankiewicz withdrew it, then vacillated. He reviewed all seven drafts and concluded that "the full evidence reveals that Welles's contribution to the Citizen Kane script was not only substantial but definitive. [6]:257, "Despite Houseman's description of himself and Herman paring every excess out of American, it was 325 pages long and outrageously overwritten, even for a first draft," wrote Meryman. Herman Jacob Mankiewicz was an American screenwriter, who, with Orson Welles, wrote the screenplay for Citizen Kane. The basic details are uncontested: Mankiewicz suffered terrible injuries in a crash and, while healing, wrote for Welles’s Mercury Theatre radio show. [9]:185, On February 19, 1940, Mankiewicz signed a contract with Mercury Productions to work on the screenplay. "[4]:494 The mainstream press accepted Kael's flamboyant but unsubstantiated essay—an extension of her dispute with Andrew Sarris and the auteur theory—based on her credibility as one of the country's top film critics. After evaluating a “virtually complete” set of script records at the RKO archives, he determined that “the full evidence reveals that Welles’s contribution to the ‘Citizen Kane’ script was not only substantial but definitive.” Kael seemed to base most of the “Raising Kane” argument off an early draft, he stated. [26]:206–207, "Raising Kane" angered many critics, most notably Bogdanovich, a close friend of Welles who rebutted Kael's claims in "The Kane Mutiny", an October 1972 article for Esquire. And people loved him. Mankiewicz proved very useful, particularly working with Houseman as editor,[6]:240–242 and wrote five scripts for Campbell Playhouse shows broadcast between November 12, 1939, and March 17, 1940. For comparison purposes, author Harlan Lebo summarizes the plot of the original script, which "varies greatly from the finished film". It was a collaboration where Herman Mankiewicz set the foundation and Orson Welles added the emotion, depth and power, raising the text to a much higher level. "[6]:260 Mankiewicz had made a study of Hearst over many years, and he had firsthand knowledge as one of his frequent guests at San Simeon; but he also drew on published accounts about Hearst for the script. [5]:244, "There is a quality in the film—much more than a vague perfume—that was Mank and that I treasured," Welles said. [9]:202, After he came to agreement with Welles on the story line and character,[4]:54 Mankiewicz was given the job of writing the first draft that Welles could rework. [4]:52–53 He summarized the screenwriting process: "The initial ideas for this film and its basic structure were the result of direct collaboration between us; after this we separated and there were two screenplays: one written by Mr. Mankiewicz, in Victorville, and the other, in Beverly Hills, by myself. "John Houseman on 'What happened to Orson Welles? "[6]:255, Questions over the authorship of the Citizen Kane screenplay were revived in 1971 by influential film critic Pauline Kael,[4]:494 whose controversial 50,000-word essay "Raising Kane" was printed in two consecutive issues of The New Yorker and subsequently as a long introduction to the shooting script in The Citizen Kane Book. [5]:553–554 Rosenbaum also reviewed the controversy in his editor's notes to This is Orson Welles (1992). "It is a little cheeky of Mankiewicz [to hand in a first draft of Citizen Kane that is 325 pages long] because he was an old hand at this. He spoke to Welles, his friend, who many suspected had contributed more than just an interview to the piece. [20] Kael's unacknowledged primary source was Houseman. By telling Kane’s story … "According to Kael, the script was written almost entirely by Mankiewicz, and Welles had actively plotted to deprive him of any screen credit. Much of Kael’s essay reads as a defense of screenwriters in the studio system, particularly a portion in which she remarked that “in that period, it was well known that if a producer of a film wanted a screenplay credit, it was almost impossible to prevent him from getting it.”, Kael, highly regarded as a critic, received praise from many peers. I gave her all the information I had and will send her more. [4]:494–501, "Orson was vigorously defended," wrote biographer Barton Whaley, "but in less prominently placed articles; so, again, the damage was immense and permanent. The Citizen Kane script is the most important screenplay of all time, said Leila Dunbar, director of Sotheby’s Collectibles Department. Film Analysis: Citizen Kane. In an interview with Vulture, even Fincher offered a gentle critique of Kael. Some big American figure—couldn’t be a politician, because you’d have to pinpoint him. [2]:32[7]:471[22] Carringer wrote that "in his lengthy account of the Victorville interlude, Houseman gives the impression that Mankiewicz started out with a clean slate, and that virtually everything in the Victorville drafts is Mankiewicz's original invention. Mankiewicz was accompanied by a nurse, secretary Rita Alexander, Houseman, and a 300-page rough script of the project that Welles had written. The fourth draft dated June 18 was the first to be titled Citizen Kane. “Mank,” the new Netflix film directed by David Fincher, revives this age-old debate. "[7]:394, By the time of Kael's death 30 years after its publication, "Raising Kane" was discredited. [5]:237 With his own secretary, Katherine Trosper, Welles was reworking the draft pages in Hollywood. Citizen Kane : A Film Analysis Of The Movie Citizen Kane 1656 Words | 7 Pages. But, you know, when the bitterness wasn't focused straight at you, he was the best company in the world. In 1947 Ferdinand Lundberg sued the creators of, Act Three of Houseman's 1972 autobiography, In May 1969 Houseman recorded in his journal that he had a long lunch with Kael, who "seems highly agitated over her 'discovery' of Herman Mankiewicz. …mogul Charles Foster Kane in Citizen Kane. Obviously, lots of people want to claim ownership of the idea. [l][m][28] The article included the revelation that Kael used the research and interviews of Dr. Howard Suber, an assistant professor at UCLA where she was then a guest lecturer, without ever crediting him. Regardless, Welles claimed he penned his own draft of the script while Mankiewicz was in Victorville: “At the end, naturally, I was the one who was making the picture, after all — who made the decisions,” he said. With the Victorville script now in hand he cut it by some 75 pages, and added or revised more than 170 pages. Social set invited to Hearst castle on several occasions preliminary work consisted of dialogue and some camera instructions Mankiewicz... Vulture, even Fincher offered a gentle critique of Kael that runway. ” material, but he knew much him..., director of Sotheby ’ s mostly about Mank shortly before this and said he liked ``... 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