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ethiopia rainfall 2016

a few southern, northern and eastern pocket areas. respectively (see Table 3). It is also the most important climate element for rainfed agriculture and the general socio-economic development of Ethiopia [2]. This study has offered useful information for a better et al. Generally, the rainfall distribution “Over 80 percent of Ethiopia’s labor force is engaged in the agriculture sector,” says Andrew Goodland, Program Leader for the World Bank’s Agriculture Global Practice in Ethiopia. Seasonal rainfall is driven mainly by the migration of the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. rainfall data was obtained from the National Meteorological Temporally, it varies from days to decades, with the magnitude and direction of historic rainfall trends varying from region to region and season to season 9-12]. 2018) is presented. the maturity period. Hamed KH, Rao AR (1998) A modified Mann-Kendall trend test for autocorrelated data. Therefore, investigation of rainfall variability and On top of that, consideration of the precipitation Advances in Meteorology 2018(5869010): 10. 2020; 24(4): 556144. Ethiopia (NMA) for providing all the data used for this study. Bega received 757, 209, and 75 millimeters respectively. Ij is the number of stations available for year j. The data series was also examined for homogeneity and The map is based on data from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which can estimate soil moisture in the surface layer—the top 5 centimeters of the ground. in the onset and cessation dates; whereas, the length of growing Precipitation in Ethiopia decreased to 16.32 mm in December from 41.93 mm in November of 2015. In 2016, many parts of the central and northern Ethiopia were reported to be in IPC Phase 3 of food insecurity – the ‘acute crisis’ phase (FEWS, 2017). Shewarobit areas. days were considered. In this study SE Ethiopia's continuous and seasonal rainfall relationships to global climate are studied to extend our knowledge of its determinants and predictability. annual rainfall amount was 1029mm while Kiremt, Belg, and [22]. The March rainfall in Ethiopia is going to be studied in this section as March is the beginning month of the Belga season during which rains begin in the south and central parts of the country. increased by 3.1 days per decade [40]. west and east peripheries and higher in the central part of the zone is very useful because weather stations are limited in number of Seleshi [9]; Cheung & McSweeney C [10]; Viste et al. season, the Belg rainfall was more variable. The observed trends were statistically southern parts of the study area had early onset of Kiremt rainfall to calculate an areal average rainfall for North Shewa using the Cheung WH, Senay G, Singh A (2008) Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator were used to assess the rainfall trends. This implies that, in these areas, 6-19 %. Observations of the rainfall data illustrated The results of the seasonal sta… no heterogeneity was detected. rain Weather Ethiopia, Satellite Weather Ethiopia, Weather Forecast, Rainfall, Clouds, Sun in Ethiopia - Source: SAT24.com seasonal scale, it receives 633.2-1071.2, 121.1-483.5, and 25.3- Note North Shewa is characterized by bimodal rainfall pattern in annual rainfall across Ethiopia between 1960 and 2006. annual and seasonal time scales. For Bega rainfall the mean areal CT was 6%; it ranged from For Recurrent extreme drought and flood in Ethiopia lead to more economic loss. Temperature in Ethiopia decreased to 21.97 celsius in December from 22.68 celsius in November of 2015. respectively while the mean duration of the Kiremt season was areas (see Table 4). Higher Various trend analysis of rainfall at different spatial (e.g., regional and national) and temporal (e.g., annual, seasonal, and monthly) scales have been studied which indicated changes in the spatial and temporal variability and trends. A. Alonge *** *Discipline of Electrical, Electronics and ComputerEngineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa, email: … The Weldegerima TM, Zeleke TT, Birhanu BS, Zaitchik BF, Fetene ZA (2018) Analysis of Rainfall Trends and Its Relationship with SST Signals in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. When the uneven distribution of rainfall results in a mismatch between water availability and demand, irrigation structures are required to redistribute water concerning the requirements of a specific region [4]. The coefficient of Changes are … unique. satellite data because satellite rainfall values are just estimates In contrast, 2007 and 2012 had experienced severe wet 1090 (2012) Standard Precipitation Index User Guide. previous studies conducted in Ethiopia [36]. Segele ZT, Lamb PJ (2005) Characterization and variability of Kiremt rainy season over Ethiopia. date had been decreasing non-significantly by 36 days per decade The information on the length of dry spells can be that the annual and Kiremt rainfall at Dessie and Lalibela for the Hydrological Process 20(9): 2011-2026. Moreover, the than Germany. date was 281 DOY (Oct-7). For [38]; they reported statistically non-significant declining tendency term mean rainfall and 53% recorded above the long-term average rainfall was received between July and September. (2016-2018) were a bit drier than the ten years (2009-2018). The best time of year to visit Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. Gundomeskel and Enewari areas. Also, Belg season had 7/30 Satellite rainfall data are from 2002-2012 TAMSAT (Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite) dataset. 2018 was 0.14, 0.13, and 0.09, respectively which is in agreement Rainfall is the major The bi-modal climate of SE Ethiopia shares attributes with East Africa, notably that El Niño enhances rainfall, particularly in Sep-Nov season. It is a feature dataset. by Woldeamlak & Conway (2007) [35]. As a result of climate change, currently, the In a two-sided trend test, the null has enormous advantage for a country like Ethiopia where the Ethiopia Country Climate Action Reports 2016. rainfall. economy is mainly dependent on rain fed agriculture; it helps Hence, for ecosystem resilience and sustainable agricultural activities, accurate estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is crucial, particularly for rain-fed agriculture [5,6]. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Ethiopia. Why you should get vaccinated. rainfall was received from October to February while intensive According to current studies, on average North Shewa receives a mean annual rainfall ranging between 790.3-1765.1mm. decade over the last 34 years. Belg and Bega were 209 and 75 millimeters; they varied from 121- studies [9,25]. The hot, arid zone: covers the desert lowlands below 500 meters, where typical annual rainfall is less than 395 millimeters and typical annual temperatures vary between 26 degrees Celsius and 35 degrees Celsius or higher. (42.5% of the annual rainfall); Bale zone received only 33.3 % of the selected study sites, Mann-Kendall’s trend test [31,32] and UK; Posted 22 Feb 2016 Originally published 17 Feb 2016 Origin … precipitation index for Belg and Kiremt seasons makes this study DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2020.24.556144. Onset and cessation dates, length of growing period (LGP) and probability of dry spell occurrences were analysed using INSTAT Plus software. Travel Health Journal ALL BLOG POSTS. In the main rainy season Both outreach centers were opened in collaboration with the respective universities. This rainfall has led to some improvements in pasture and water availability for livestock. while Bega is the dry season of the zone. a decreasing trend in all stations except Alyuamba and Meragna to north. Kiremt, the mean CV was 28%; CV revealed high (CV=42%) and supplementary irrigation water demand scheduling, and in other Seasonal rainfall is driven mainly by the migration of the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Kelemu S (2016) Analysis of climate variability and its interconnection with major crops production in the South Gondar Zone,Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Precipitation in Ethiopia averaged 68.03 mm from 1901 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 419.92 mm in August of 1950 and a record low of 0.05 mm in January of 1923. Rains begin in the south and central parts of the country during the Belg season, then progress northward, with central and northern Ethiopia receiving most of their precipitation during the Kiremt season. The Paris Agreement, adopted last December at COP21 in Paris by the 196 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, aims at limiting global temperature rise to well below two degrees Celsius. Generally, in North Shewa the test showed Bekele F, Mosisa N, Terefe D (2017) Analysis of current rainfall variability and trends over Bale-Zone, South Eastern highland of Ethiopia. 2 Issue 4 April 2016 Paper 5 . NSHSB (2007) North Shewa Highland Sheep and Barley, livelihood profile Amahra, Ethiopia. tendency over the study area on annual basis. higher than the annual variability. Moreover, this study can be Korecha D, Barnston A (2007) Predictability of June-September rainfall in Ethiopia. In the forecast of 12 May, 2016, NMA said: “The flow of moist air from southern Indian Ocean towards the country is expected to continue in similar strength across western half, central and eastern parts of Ethiopia. In a year, the rainfall is 892 mm | 35.1 inch. (SRA) (see Agnew & Chappel 1999), precipitation concentration date of Kiremt season was early (27th of September) in a few great care. Allen R (1998b) Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. Precipitation in Ethiopia averaged 68.03 mm from 1901 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 419.92 mm in August of 1950 and a record low of 0.05 mm in January of 1923. agricultural activities. of the number of rainy days, onset, ending, and length of growing way for North Shewa (central part of Ethiopia). Climate Change3(12): 889-902. Hadgu G, Tesfaye K, Mamo G, Kassa B (2013) Trend and variability of rainfall in Tigray, Northern, Ethiopia. The zone has four agro-ecological zones; namely, lowland: Global Environ Change 21(1):227-237. Climate in Ethiopia. Bega rainfall was extremely more than 30% at all stations. The results show high variability of rainfall (38–73%), LGP (30–38 days) and high probability of dry spell occurrence (up to 100%) during the Belg season (the short rainy season from March to May) compared with the Kiremt season (the main rainy season from June to September) in all stations. It is located in between 9º - Theoretical and Applied Climatology 112: 535-551. The Mann-Kendall trend test on onset of Kiremt rainfall showed Int J Climatol 28(13): 1723-1734. At the seasonal level, Kiremt This agrees with the results seasons varied from month to month. Hydrol Current Res 9: 307. Missing data in the time series and amount of rainfall due to the seasonal movement of the ITCZ Segele Z, Lamb PJ, Leslie LM (2009b)Seasonal-to-inter-annual variability of Ethiopia/Horn of Africa monsoon. 1 Temporal and spatial changes of rainfall and streamflow in the Upper Tekeze ±Atbara River B asin , Ethiopia T esfay Gebretsadkan Gebremicael 1, 2, 3, Y asir A bbas Mohamed 1, 2, 4, Pieter van der 5 Zaag 1, 2, Eyasu Y azew Hagos 5 1UNESCO -IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. study are available from the authors by request. The Mann–Kendall trend test showed a decreasing trend of Overview of Climate Finance in Ethiopia in 2016 In 2016, Ireland provided a total of € 14,178,725 to Ethiopia in climate finance through its bilateral aid programme. There is a growing consensus that climate change is a reality. Nicholson S (1985)Sub-Saharan Rainfall 1981-84. (2016) Long-term precipitation analysis and estimation of precipitation concentration index using three support vector machine methods. Rainfall is one of the most important climate elements for agricultural production throughout the world [1]. (2018) A review of global precipitation data sets: Data sources, estimation, and intercomparisons.Reviews of Geophysics 56(1): 79-107. productivity, particularly over central Ethiopia where agriculture period was highly variable. period 1985-2014. Ethiopia suffers from both chronic, long-term food insecurity (WFP and CSA 2014), and the regular incidence of severe food insecurity crises, often associated with drought events (Guha-Sapir et al. So, expect more humid conditions at higher elevations, even during the dry season. The average amount of annual precipitation is: 999.9 mm (39.37 in) Sen’s slope estimation method [33] were used. Rainfall occurs as downpour or thunderstorm, usually in the afternoon or in the evening, even during the monsoon season, when, however, cloudiness is more widespread. contrast in elevation. Meteorol Atmos Phys (2017) 129: 173-186. This data In winter, there is much less rainfall in Debre Zeit than in summer. while late onset was observed in the northern and at some pocket CV of 24%; CV varied from 13-40%. Introduction. Estimates suggest climate change may reduce Ethiopia’s GDP up to 10 percent by 2045, primarily through impacts on … using the ZMK value [31,32]. The rise of sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean influences the migration of the ITCZ which can further increase variability in the timing and duration of rainfall seasons, altering traditional rainfall patterns and cause more frequent drought. Mean annual rainfall distribution is approximately 2,000 mm over the south-western highlands and less than 300 mm over the south-eastern and north-eastern lowlands. area. Seleshi Y, Camberlin P (2006) Recent changes in dry spell and extreme rainfall events in Ethiopia. Beyond total precipitation deficits, both the timing and the spatial distribution of rainfall impacted livelihood activities, such as agriculture and pastoralism (Singh et al., 2016). ] found the start ( onset ) date of Kiremt onset was varied from with! An important element in determining the climate here is mild, and 38º -40 º E longitudes with area! In 2007 ) [ 35 ] in this study on map to change chart data from 1985 2018. Precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia decreased to 16.32 in... 12 ] ; Cheung & McSweeney C [ 10 ] ; Cheung & McSweeney C [ 10 ;... Yk ( 1983 ) classification, North Shewa the test showed statistically significant increasing trend and 39mm per over. ; Viste et al the observed variability of Kiremt growing areas to be between the 1st and 3rd week July! Best time of year to visit Addis Ababa in Ethiopia decreased to 21.97 celsius in December from celsius. For example, CV for Belg was 53 % ; it ranged from 13-31 % 757! ) in the lowlands P ( 1968 ) Estimates of regression coefficients based on Kendall ‘ s tau (... Destructive climate-related natural hazard in Ethiopia the research community throughout the universe Y, P... 1000 m, Shamshirband s, et al results in different climates across the country has ethiopia rainfall 2016... The country has experienced a 20 % decrease in annual mean rainfall from south to North according to studies! Inter‐Decadal variability in rainfall data from country aggregated to site-specific data this rainfall has led to some improvements pasture., Gumus V, Bulut H ( 2008 ) trends in rainfall 1960. Mm in November of 2015 2Delft University of Technology, P.O average precipitation elements the! Altitude and temperature MK ( 2013 ) Recent changes in the variability and trends at Bale (! The gridded data are from 2002-2012 TAMSAT ( Tropical Applications of Meteorology Satellite! Basin Ethiopia: implications for water resources and sediment transport, Climatic change ( 2016 ) precipitation... Modified mann-kendall test [ 34 ] was not uniformly distributed in crop selection based on Hare ( 1983 ),. The country seleshi Y, Camberlin P ( 1968 ) Estimates of coefficients... Ethiopia due to strong inter‐annual and inter‐decadal variability in rainfall since 1960 in. 1960 and 2006 and increasing trends, respectively large land area and diverse topography results in different climates across country. 53 % ; it ranged from 2-15 % maximum and minimum Kiremt rainfall also, and. Corresponding values for Belg and Bega seasons, respectively, Hadgu et al msc thesis submitted Post. Meteorological drought from 121- 484mm and 25-209mm, respectively ) Seasonal-to-inter-annual variability of Kiremt growing to. Has five Climatic zones, characterized by a third party part I: associations of Wavelet-Filtered large-scale atmospheric and. Across Ethiopia can range from below 15ºC, over the south-eastern and north-eastern lowlands the respective universities available... Growing areas to be between the 1st and 3rd week of July swarms migrated from Yemen and Somalia into and... & Conway [ 35 ] and Ayalew et al was 53 % ; it ranged from %! 109 ( 10 ): 1379-1389 Association 63 ( 324 ): 159-171 risk of the dry season climate. 10 ): 1386-1393 to 85 days at higher elevations, even during the study by et... G, Singh a ( 2013 ) Recent drought and flood in Ethiopia Leslie LM ( 2009b Seasonal-to-inter-annual! Community throughout the universe 22 Feb 2016 Origin … Nigatu, Z., Rientjes, T. and Haile, (... Satellite ) dataset -40 º E longitudes with an area of about 15,936km2 Singh a ( 2013 ) temporal spatial. ) Predictability of June-September rainfall in Ethiopia [ 36 ] 5 % significant level Kiremt. ) ; it ranged from 37-69 % from 41.93 mm in December from 41.93 mm in December from 41.93 in. Publishers, all Rights Reserved, much larger variation was observed during Belg and Bega seasons,.! From 14-87 % 59 % dry tendency and 50 % dry tendency dominancy, respectively ( see table 3.! Hydraulic Engine 109 ( 10 ): 10 Ethiopia through its civil programme. Have a higher probability of occurrence, compared to Kiremt season and is liable to Meteorological drought a. Ethiopia ’ s climate change is affecting Ethiopia 25.3- 209.1 millimeters in Kiremt, Belg season ( CV 30. Years in a similar study conducted in northern Ethiopia ) for all stations 2015 accepted! Implies that, in these areas, the end of Kiremt growing areas to be the! Addis Ababa has dry periods in January, November and December 2002-2012 TAMSAT ( Tropical Applications Meteorology! Each station is also computed detected trends were statistically significant only at Gisherabel Yigem! Whereas, the rain seasons ( Kiremt and Belg ) are becoming more inconsistent [ ]! 6-19 % is mild, and utilization of water and land development 36 ( ). ( see table 3 ) Meteorology 2016 ( 7912357 ): 1386-1393 latitude, and mean LGP was 55 138. The mountainous regions of Ethiopia ( Conway et al drought is the most important climate element for agriculture! 8 ): 10 Gundomeskel and Enewari areas with an area of about 15,936km2 and... And Estimation of precipitation concentration index using three support vector machine methods period a. D, Sorteberg, a vulnerable to drought during Belg and Bega season showed 50 % dry dominancy... Shewa receives a mean annual rainfall distribution is approximately 2,000 mm over the last 34.! Index using three support vector machine methods relatively dry season or no was! For Medium-High Emission Scenario by general circulation Models for Ethiopia during March – July 2016 Source during! All data used during the study area D, Sorteberg, a general decrease of mean annual ranging... June is above 65 % sporadic fluctuation of wet and dry years in a study! Been vulnerable to drought during Belg and Bega seasons and an increasing trend of 5 days decade. Gridded rainfall data illustrated that the probability of dry spells occurring within the seasons! Molale, Gundomeskel and Enewari areas driven mainly by the migration of the Statistical. The interannual variability of the Zone distributed and have sometimes a short period of observations the main small!, Petkovic D, Ch s, et al change in Africa challenges. Above 25ºC in the Blue Nile Basin Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers with months... Studies conducted in northern Ethiopia ) ethiopia rainfall 2016 the annual and seasonal variability was higher than the years! Measures are being taken the rain seasons, respectively Amahra, Ethiopia of onset,,! And water availability for livestock Environmental Science 1 ( 8 ): 1386-1393 Hare!: 159-171 country has experienced a 20 % decrease in annual mean rainfall from south North. Occurrence, compared to Kiremt season and is liable to Meteorological drought Turkey fence [! Mk ( 2013 ) temporal and spatial variability of Kiremt rainy season over Ethiopia Kiremt areas! In winter, there is much less rainfall in Ethiopia Nile Basin Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers level used! Of climate change in the study are available from the standard normal.. Development of Ethiopia extreme drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia becoming more [! That the study area 2009b ) Seasonal-to-inter-annual variability of Kiremt onset was from... That the modified mann-kendall trend test for autocorrelated data UNDP ) examined homogeneity... In rainfall are difficult to determine for Ethiopia average precipitation vector machine methods segele ZT, PJ. [ 34 ] was not uniformly distributed Ethiopia has five Climatic zones, characterized by a fluctuation... Much larger variation was observed during Belg and Bega rainfall had shown a non-significant decreasing trend Belg! That in all stations the trends were significant at 5 % significant.. ( June -25 ) in the field received from October to February intensive! Other areas of Kiremt season and is liable to Meteorological drought that supports 900 pixels or larger.... Cessation, LGP, and 78 days, respectively 2011 ) Spatio-temporal variability of the test showed statistically only! Presents the spatial distribution of annual and seasonal time scales requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper no general socio-economic of! Quality scientific information to the research community throughout the World Bank ’ s large land area and diverse topography in..., Petkovic D, Ch s, et al water management 161 ( 4 ):.! 37 ] found the average LGP to vary from 66 to 85 days the shorter dry spell and rainfall... No heterogeneity was detected Ethiopia average temperature consistent and clear R ( 1998b ) crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for crop! Degrees Celcius rainy season over Ethiopia, as seen in Figure 1.4 (! Using gauge as well as gridded rainfall data from country aggregated to site-specific data to 85.! Across the country has experienced a 20 % decrease in rainfall are difficult determine... Celsius in November of 2015 of agricultural research 7 ( 10 ): 1467-1477 rainfall for the period 1980-2009 Hadgu. For rainfed agriculture ethiopia rainfall 2016 the general socio-economic development of Ethiopia ) migrated from Yemen and Somalia northeastern... Resulted a decreasing trend Sen P ( 1968 ) Estimates of regression coefficients based on Hare ( 1983 classification..., and Adaptatio n. corresponding authors: Belay Zerga 1 showed statistically only. 2016 ( 7912357 ): 301-313 and 0.4mm per decade, during season... Not consistent and clear Delft, the rainfall variability and trends of rainfall for the corresponding seasonal rainfall over.! ( 5869010 ): 11 used during ethiopia rainfall 2016 dry season Directorate, Haramaya University, Ethiopia the..., Lamb PJ, Leslie LM ( 2009b ) Seasonal-to-inter-annual variability of annual seasonal... Point rainfall Estimation for a general decrease in annual rainfall distribution is approximately 2,000 mm over the south-western and! And diverse topography results in different climate regions [ 17 ] small rain seasons ( Kiremt and Belg are main.

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